Concrete Repair

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Concrete Repair

 

The use of reinforced concrete elements within a structure continues to be one of the most common and economically viable methods of construction within Singapore’s diverse built environment.

However, like you would service your car, concrete too, requires maintenance to prolong its working life.

Increasing levels of pollution and Singapore’s salt and moisture rich coastal environment pose serious structural and safety issues for buildings due to the corrosive effects of such elements. When the steel reinforcement of a concrete structure comes into contact with moisture over an extended period of time it corrodes and expands. This can lead to concrete cracks and corrosion induced spalling, issues that may significantly compromise the strength of the overall structure.

Cracks and spalling within concrete needs to be repaired by experienced remedial tradespeople in order to guarantee the performance and value of an asset. As specialists in building repair, we combine the skills and expertise of our team with extensive knowledge of, and access to, materials from around the world to tailor-make solutions to suit every problem. By taking a long-term view, such solutions don’t simply address the problem in hand, but ensure the guaranteed performance of every repair.

 

Concrete Crack Repair

 

It is important that each situation is individually assessed and the correct repair technique is specified. We are fluent in a range of crack repair methods to meet the needs of wet and dry conditions along structural or non-structural requirements. We currently practice the below crack repair techniques;

  • Polyurethane injection repair is used in the areas of waterproofing where flexibility is required and cracks are non-structural,
  • Epoxy injection repair used for structural requirements in existing designs

Surface repairs (Fine crack repair)

  • Pour in epoxy grouts,
  • Cementitious / Epoxy trowel repairs,
  • Polyurethane Caulking,

Subsurface repairs (In-depth cracking), the cause of subsurface cracking can be correlated to; design error, excessive loading and corrosion induced cracking.

1) Surface preparation1) Surface preparation
2) Put formwork
3) Pour non shrink grout – Grade 50 miniumum

If water mark presence – Chemical grouting (Basic injection repair)

Types of chemical grouting according to site situation

• Denepox 40 – underwater epoxy injection for concrete.  Compressive strength of 100MPA.  No moving water

• HA cut AF- 1 component polyurethane resin to stop water flow in concrete, soil and fissure

Chemical grouting (advanced injection repair)

Organasol XP – void fillings for large cavity

IP 2C-Highflow

2-component high flow skid mounted 1/1 ratio injection pump for injection of Rockstab polyurethane and Organosol organo-mineral resins.

Field of application

• Injection of 2-component polyurethane and organo-mineral resins.

• Tunnel and mining injections.

Advantages

• High efficiency.

• High flow rate and injection pressure.

• Pneumatic drive, explosion proof.

• Skid mounted for easy transportation.

• Easy maintenance

Description

The IP 2C-Highflow is a pneumatic 1/1 ratio high performance piston injection pump for the injection of polyurethane or organo-mineral resins such as the Rockstab and Organosol series. The pump can deliver up to 255 bars. The pump is supplied with suction hoses suitable for use with 200 l drums and 10 m pressure hoses and a 2-component injection head with a static mixer. Special drum handling equipment is available for high volume jobs. With this drum handling equipment the first 200 l drums of each component will serve as reservoir for the whole duration of the project.

Application

• Before starting to use the injection pump, it is necessary to read and understand the health and safety instructions. Before the first start-up of the IP 2C-Highflow pump, the information below, relating to resin injections, must be studied carefully. Consult the manual before start up of the pump.

• Only use packers equipped with non-return valves or valves at the end which can be closed after injection.

• The IP 2C-Highflow is equipped with a 2-component injection head with check valves for each component, static mixer.

• The skid mounted pump should be installed level and horizontal.

• Air requirements: compressor:

– Min 3.5 M³/min at 7 bars.

– Max particle size = 5 micron

– Max particles concentration = 5mg/m³

– Pressure dew point + 10°C = 9,4 g/m³ H2O + 2°C = 5,6 g/m³

– Pneurop recommendation 611/1984

– When these air requirements are not available on the jobsite, it is an obligation to install a water separator and oil dispenser (1-8 drops every 1000 l air) in the airline before the pump.

• Assemble the suction hose, suction pipe, recycle hose, high pressure hose and injection head connections. The A- and B-components are colour marked and should never be interchanged to avoid blockage of the pump:

A-component : blue.

B-component : red.

• It is recommended to perform a function and pressure test with Separation Oil before charging the pump with resin.

• Connect the compressed air feed line to the motor.

• Check to see if all the product valves on the head and recycle lines are closed.

• Insert the suction hoses into 2 separate containers with Separation Oil.

• Set the pressure at 2 bars and open the compressed air feed.

• Allow the pump to stall against the closed valves.

• Raise the compressed air pressure to 6 bars and check for leaks.

• Release the pressure and let the pump run to de-aerate. Check the level of the containers to assure the correct ratio is maintained.

• Insert the suction hoses into the resin component containers.

• Disconnect the injection head from the hoses.

• Put each hose in a separate, clean bucket.

• Open the air regulator until the pump starts.

• Pump until clear resin comes out of both injection hoses.

• Stop the pump.

• Empty both buckets and restart the pump.

• Check the correct ratio, buckets should be filled with the same volume in a given time.

• If the ratio is not 1/1, use the recycle regulator on the A-side of the pump, until the correct 1/1 ratio is obtained.

• Connect the injection head and restart the pump against closed valves.

• Open both valves make sure that the flush valve of the B-component is closed, and pump the 2 components in a bucket. The material in the bucket should react according to the TDS of the product.

• To flush the head and static mixer: open the flush valve of the B-component and the injection valve on the A-component until clear A-component comes out of the static mixer. This time is used as reference for the correct flush of the static mixer.

• For very fast systems such as Deneblock UF, injection starts immediately after verification of the 1/1 ratio.

• The pump is now ready for injection.

• For injection, use the following procedure

– Connect to the packer or injection tube.

– Open both product valves simultaneously.

– Pump the required amount of resin.

– Close the B-component valve and successively open the flush valve on the B-component.

– Flush with sufficient A-component to prevent blockage of the head and the static mixer.

– Close the injection valve of the A-component and successively the flush valve of the B-component.

– Disconnect from the packer or injection tube.

– Move to the next packer and repeat the procedure. Assure that the flush valve of the B-component is closed.

• Flushing is done between shots when the injection time of the chosen product is exceeded, before prolonged stops and after each days work as finishing action.

• Intermediate flushing during packer changes or short stand still is performed using A-component.

• Final cleaning is performed using Separation Oil or hydraulic oil.

• For long shut downs it is recommended to empty the pump and flush and fill it with clean Separation Oil to keep the system dry and lubricated.

Technical data/properties

Appearance

The IP 2C-Highflow pump is a blue skid mounted pump in a blue frame complete with hoses and injection head.The IP 2C-Highflow pump is a blue skid mounted pump in a blue frame complete with hoses and injection head.

Packaging

The IP 2C-Highflow pump is supplied on a pallet.The IP 2C-Highflow pump is supplied on a pallet.

Storage

To ensure proper use and a long working life of the IP 2C-Highflow, the pump must be stored after being cleaned correctly and must be protected against moisture. No other special storage con ditions apply.

Accessories

To be ordered separately

• Static mixer cartridges.

• Separation Oil.

• Washing Agent ECO.

• Flush pump.

• Packers and connectors.

• Drum Handling Equipment.

(Please consult the relevant data sheet)

 

Health & safety

The operator must know how the equipment works and un derstand clearly the dangers connected to pressurized liquid pumping. Do not point gun at anyone or any part of the body. An automatic system stops the pump when exceeding the electrical safety limits. When you use the pump after a long period of inac tivity, make sure that all the parts subject to pressure hold and in good condition. For replacement, use original spare parts. Only authorized and responsible personnel must operate the unit.

Organosol XP

Phthalate free, fast reacting, high foaming, organo-mineral injection grout for void filling, ground and rock consolidation.

Field of application

• Due to its high reactivity, Organosol XP is well suited for filling voids over very short injection distances.

• Instant stabilisation of the immediate surrounding area.

• In tunnels: for void filling and consolidation of fragmented rock formations, and stabilising semi-permeable soils, very rough sands, and for crevasse filling.

• For the bonding and filling of tubular consolidations, umbrella techniques.

• In mines where only low polymerisation temperatures are allowed.• In mines where only low polymerisation temperatures are allowed.

Advantages

• ADR free transport.

• Phthalate free resin, REACH compliant.

• Solvent free.

• Fast reaction times : 60 seconds after mixing of the 2 components (15°C).

• Due to rapid expansion consumption rate is reduced.

• Good compressibility accommodates itself to slight movements of the soil.

• Hardened foam does not dissolve into water.

• Low polymerisation temperature.

Description

Organosol XP is a 2-component, phthalate free, foaming organo-mineral grout with 1/1 mixing ratio. When injected through a specially designed 2-component injection head with static mixer, the grout will expand and cure in a short time. Faster reaction times can be set by using the (optional) accelerator.

Organosol XP is supplied in a 2-component set:

• A-component : mineral resin.

• B-component : polyurethane.

• Mixing ratio : 1/1 volumetric.

Application

1. Equipment

• 2-or 3 component pumps with a 1/1 ratio, equipped with individual pressure gauges at the pressure side , in order to control the balance of pressures and flow of the components.

• Power supply: compressed air.

• Performance: at least 3 times the reaction pressure of the resin and/or the highest natural counter pressure (Highest factor taken in consideration first).

• The De Neef IP 2C-Highflow: a compact 2-component , air driven, pump, that will allow the pressurised injection of De Neef’s 2-component resins (1/1 ratio).

• All pumps must be flushed regularly with Washing Agent Eco, a special, very high flashpoint, cleaning agent.

2. Injection

• Injection pressures vary for different applications: e.g.: smaller cracks will result in higher friction losses, to be overcome by higher pump pressures. Larger cracks will require lower injection pressures. Usually the rise in pumping pressures will become evident at the final stage, when the crack is completely volume-filled.

• Pressures during injections in rock and soil, such as generated by compression and friction, during the permeation in low-permeability, lowcohesion soils or fractured rock formations are to be limited below the maximum stress bearing capacity of the given formation. In these conditions, the injection pressures will be decided after a thorough analysis of the geological and structural conditions, counter pressures and substrate stability.

3. Packers

• Mechanical or inflatable packers are used. Size and length of packers is determined according to the application.• Mechanical or inflatable packers are used. Size and length of packers is determined according to the application.

Technical data/properties

Appearance

A-component : transparent liquid.

B-component : dark brown liquid.

Consumption

Has to be estimated by the engineer or operator and depends on width and depth of the cracks and voids to be filled.Has to be estimated by the engineer or operator and depends on width and depth of the cracks and voids to be filled.

Packaging

Resin

• 22,5 l plastic jerry-can : approx. 26,1 kg.

• 180 l plastic drum : approx. 208,8 kg.

Hardener

• 22,5 l metal drum : approx. 27,25 kg.

• 180 l metal drum : approx 217,8 kg.

1 pallet Organosol XP

• 12 plastic jerry-cans A-component.

• 12 metal drums B-component.

OR

• 2 x 180 l plastic drums A-component.

• 2 x 180 l metal drums B-component.

Storage

To be ordered separately

• IP 2C-Highflow pneumatic 2-component injection pump.

• Washing Agent Eco

• Packers and connectors.

(See respective Technical Data Sheets)(See respective Technical Data Sheets)

 

Health & safety

Organosol XP A-component is classified as irritant.

Organosol XP B-component is classified as harmful.

All persons in contact with the materials should wear the appropriate protective clothing and gloves. Spills should be washed immediately with abundant quantities of clean water.

For full information, consult the relevant Material Safety Data Sheet.

Concrete is the most versatile material used for the construction of infrastructure today and in the future in Singapore. Its constituents are readily available and it is able to be moulded to any shape and configuration. Concrete is inherently strong in compression but relatively low in tensile strength. Consequently reinforcing steel is used in concrete structures to provide tensile strength and ductility.

Concrete is alkaline and it provides a non-corrosive environment for the reinforcing steel. Accordingly well designed, properly constructed reinforced concrete is highly durable in a variety of environments. However, these ideal conditions are not always met in practice.

The design life and integrity of many assets has been impaired by aggressive environments and service conditions which lead to corrosion of the reinforcing steel and/or deterioration of the hardened concrete binding properties.

We understand the mechanisms of concrete deterioration leading to provision of fit for purpose concrete repair solutions which address the root causes and not just the symptoms of distress. This approach leads to extension of the life of important assets.

We provide a full range of pure cement based products, cementitious, polymer-modified repair mortars and epoxy based repair materials for different concrete repair works and specific requirements in Singapore.

Concrete Repair Protection

For Water Treatment Plants, Refineries, Chimneys, Road Structures, etc.

Anti-Carbonation Coating

Uses:

  • As a protective coating producing a matt finish surface
  • For protection and embellishment of facades and fair-faced concrete without obscuring the characteristic surface texture of the concrete.

Features and Advantages:

  • Good water vapour permeability
  • High diffusion-resistance to CO2, good carbonation barrier
  • Excellent resistance to weathering and ageing
  • Excellent resistance against chalking
  • Excellent adhesion to many substrates
  • Ecologically and environmentally friendly

Hydrophobic Impregnation

Uses:

  • As a water repellent impregnation
  • As a protective surface treatment absorbent exposed substrates such as concrete, cementitious rendering, concrete tiles, fiber cement, brickworks, concrete in civil engineering or building concrete structures subjected to heavy stress due to freeze and thaw circles and de-icing salts, chloride attack in marine environment, etc

Features and Advantages:

  • Reduces capillary water absorption, protection against rain and splashing on vertical areas.
  • Higher durability and resistance than conventional silicone based treatments.
  • Good resistance to sea water
  • Low VOC
  • Long term efficiency, deep penetration

Damp-proofing Injection

Uses:

  • As an injectable water repellant cream to treat rising damp in almost all types of masonry walls.
  • It is inserted into a series of holes drilled into a mortar course with a simple application gun.
  • Once injected, it will diffuse within the damp wall to form a water repellent barrier (Damp-Proof Course, OPC) and block future rising damp.

Features and Advantages:

  • Fast and easy to inject or install (no waiting times)
  • Consistent application rate
  • No need for preliminary watertight sealing around the injection holes (as with pressure systems)
  • Low hazard, water based, non-caustic, non-flammable,
  • No risk of increased efflorescence (as with siliconate rising damp treatments)

Polymer-modified Mortar

Uses:

  • Fast repairs to horizontal or vertical concrete or mortar surfaces above and below ground level.
  • As a bonding mortar and reinforce¬ment protection
  • As a pore sealer / finishing coat to concrete, mortar patches and screeds
  • As a bonding primer and reinforce¬ment corrosion protection
  • As a levelling layer over concrete and mortars
  • As a Temporary Moisture Barrier

Features and Advantages:

  • Fast and easy to apply
  • Excellent bonding to concrete and steel
  • Non-corrosive to reinforcing steel
  • Non-toxic
  • Non-shrink
  • High mechanical strength
  • Good resistant to water immersion

Chemical Resistant Coating

Uses:

  • As an abrasion-resistant universal coating material designed for normal to moderately aggressive chemical environments
  • As a lining for storage tanks, silos, catchment pits / overflows, steel . tanks, etc.
  • As an anti-corrosion coating for water treatment plants, food and beverage processing plants, etc
  • May be used with glass fiber mesh to form a protective membrane with crack bridging properties

Features and Advantages:

  • Solvent-free
  • Good chemical resistance
  • Good mechanical strength
  • High-build formula for 1-coat appli¬cation
  • Cures without shrinkage
  • Easy to mix and work
  • Forms a smooth even coating

Corrosion Inhibitor

Uses:

  • As a corrosion protection of steel reinforced concrete structures above and below ground.
  • As a treatment of reinforcing steel during repair and maintenance of reinforced concrete structures which is corroding or in danger of being corroded in areas without any visible concrete defects (incipient modes condition)
  • Suitable to extend the service life of aesthetically valuable fair faced concrete

Features and Advantages:

  • Does not change the appearance of the concrete
  • Does not alter the water vapour diffu¬sion capability
  • Economical extension of the service life of reinforced concrete structures
  • Easy to apply

Concrete Repair

Concrete Repair Singapore

Concrete Repair

Concrete Repair Singapore

Spalling Concrete

Spalling concrete is a common issue for older buildings. It is largely caused by carbonation, a natural deterioration process. This causes the steel bars embedded in the ceiling slab to corrode, which in turn causes the concrete cover to crack and bulge. Under the Lease, you are responsible for the repair of any spalling concrete in your flat.

How to prevent spalling concrete

Spalling concrete is a surface maintenance problem that occurs in reinforced concrete structures. If attended to immediately, the building’s structural integrity will not be affected.

Here’s how spalling concrete can be prevented:

  1. Paint ceilings regularly
    Paint protects your ceiling and helps to prevent carbonation. Ideally, you should paint your ceiling regularly.
  2. Seal cracks/ holes properly
    Check your ceiling regularly for any holes or cracks. These should be sealed immediately to prevent moisture and carbon dioxide from entering the concrete. Similarly, seal up any holes drilled into the ceiling that are no longer in use (e.g. holes left after a ceiling fixture is removed).
  3. Ensure sufficient ventilation
    A humid environment will speed up carbonation. To reduce the humidity in moisture-prone areas such as the kitchen, toilet, and bathroom, open the windows, vents, or doors when the areas are not in use.

Repairing spalling concrete

With regular maintenance, spalling concrete within HDB flats will usually be minor and can be easy repaired. However, if the spalling concrete is left unattended over a long period, it will spread to a bigger area and weaken the building structure.

If you encounter spalling concrete in your flat, you can engage a spalling concrete repair contractor. Do note that our list only serves as a guide and is not meant to be exhaustive or an endorsement of the contractor’s performance. You might want to also consult sources such as the Yellow Pages (Commercial/ Industrial Guide) before engaging a contractor.

The steps below briefly show how spalling concrete is repaired.

While waiting for the repairs, do remove any loose spalling concrete to prevent injury to your family members.

Step 1: Remove the spalled concrete

  • Remove the concrete at the spalled areas to expose the corroded steel bars

Step 2: Clean and paint the corroded steel bars

  • Scrape and clean the exposed steel bars and use a wire brush to remove any rust
  • Apply 2 coats of anti-rust paint to the steel bars

Step 3: Patch the hacked area

  • Apply a bonding agent to the affected surface to ensure proper adhesion
  • Patch the hacked area using polymer modified cement mortar

Step 4: Paint the area

Paint over the patched area to match the rest of your ceiling

Source from HDB Singapore

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Good concrete crack repair is based on 3 basic steps

1. Correct identification of the type of crack

  • Structural cracks
  • Non-structural cracks
  • Wet
  • Dry, can also need repair to avoid problems with reinforcement corrosion later

2. Correct identification of the cause of the cracking

  • In case of structural cracks, causes need to be considered for effective repair

3. Correct selection of the repair method and repair products

  • Product selection
  • Requirements of EN1504-5
  • Method of application

Concrete crack identification

  • Concrete Society Report TR 22 provides a visual guide which can be used with the accompanying table as an aid to crack identification.
  • Whilst this is good tool for initial prognosis, it must be noted that cracks can be caused by one or more contributing factors.

Crack Identification Table for assessing cracks with the previous drawing. Also gives guidance on both timing and appearance.

 

Why is correct identification of crack types and damage important

  • The general consensus reached in EN1504-5 for concrete repair by crack injections is that all cracks can lead to structural damage
  • Outright structural damage where the integrity of the structure is compromised
  • Leaks causing ingress of materials leading to corrosion of the reinforcement steel causing potential structural problems in the future.

Correct identification is for correct selection of method and materials

1. Correct identification of the type of crack is often difficult and misdiagnosed

  • You need to know the type and cause to select the correct method.
  • You need to know the crack size and depth
  • You need to know if the crack is structural or non-structural

2. Movement of the crack is very important issue to consider

  • Not just at the moment of crack formation in fresh concrete but also considering the opening / movement of the crack due to future loading of the structure

3. Moisture state of the crack needs to be considered

  • Moisture can influence the effectiveness of the repair technique / product
  • Dry cracks can cause problems with ingress of chemicals later
  • Eg. de-icing salts on intermediate slabs in car parks

Main crack types in concrete repairs

1. Structural cracks

  • All methods and products are designed to re-instate the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure
  • All materials need to be of suitable structural strength
  • In case structural cracks show water leakage, this might need to be remedied first

2. Non-structural wet cracks

  • Determine the cause of the water entry and the point of entry
  • Determine if the crack is rigid / dynamic
  • Consider the amount of water entry.

3. Dry non-structural cracks

  • Often not considered a problem during construction or before the structure is in use
  • Depending on the use of the structure can cause problems later in design life
  • The repair at the later stage is usually more difficult and expensive to fix

4. Expansion joints / Movement joints

  • Most difficult problem to fix in repair and require special techniques

It is important also to consider the cause of the crack

  • Especially for structural cracks
  • Structural crack repair requires re-bonding the concrete crack faces with a product:
  • Which is stronger than the concrete
  • Which has higher adhesion to concrete than the concrete cohesive strength.
  • If the cause of the cracking is not considered and acted upon
  • The cracking will re-occur next to the repaired area and the structure will still not structurally sound
  • For waterproofing repairs
  • Water will select the most easy point of entry first
  • Ie large cracks and construction joints
  • When these are sealed and the pressure builds up
  • The water will move to other cracks
  • What is called in the industry as chasing the water

Check list

1. What kind of crack do we have

  • Structural / Non-structural
  • Static / Dynamic
  • Wet / Dry
  • What is the future intended use
  • Is the crack on the surface or not

2. What method can we use

  • Open crack and repair
  • Can be used for superficial crack repair
  • Injections

3. Do we need to consider EN1504

  • European concrete repair standard defining repair methods and principles
  • Defining properties and caracteristics of the product

EN1504

EN 1504 is a European Harmonized Standard (hEN) defining:

  • Concrete repair and protection
  • Only pertains to reinforced concrete structures
  • Defines repair principles
  • Defines specific product type performance levels

Chapters

  1. Definitions
  2. Surface protection
  3. Repair mortars
  4. Structural bonding (external reinforcement)
  5. Injection materials
  6. Anchoring of reinforcement steel
  7. Corrosion protection
  8. Quality control and conformity
  9. Use and application
  10. Site application and quality control

CE-marking some clarification

1. Only products for applications defined in EN1504 can have a CE-marking

  • Rigid water cutters meant to stop large leaks are not included and do not require CE-marking

2. CE-Mark is no quality mark, it is a proof of fit for purpose

  • The FPC only validates procedures, it does not impose rectification of quality issues
  • The essential driver is tracability

3. EN 1504 only applies to repair and protection of reinforced concrete

4. CE-Mark is made up of 2 different aspects

  • ITT or Initial Type Testing
  • FPC or Factory Production Control

EN1504-5 : Concrete injection

  • This chapter deals with concrete injections as repair method
  • Speficies 3 different principle
  • F : Force transmitted filling
  • Structural injections using materials that transmit forces (epoxies)
  • D : Ductile filling
  • Flexible or ductile filling of cracks for leak sealing purposes (polyurethanes)
  • S : Swelling fitted filling
  • Products with an afterswell after reaction (acrylates)

HA Flex LV AF

  • EN 1505-5 principle D
  • Standard + Year of declaration
  • U D1 W(5) (3) (0/50)
  • D1 = Waterproof to 2 bars
  • W(5) = injecteable for cracks >0.5 mm
  • (3) = Moisture state
  • Water filled cracks
  • (0/50) = Optimum application T

Gelacryl Superflex AR

  • EN 1505-5 principle S
  • Standard + Year of declaration
  • U (S2) W(1) (1/2/3) (5/40)
  • S2 = Waterproof to 7 bars
  • W (1) = crack width starting from 0,1 mm
  • 1/2/3 = moisture state of crack
  • 1 = dry
  • 2 = damp
  • 3 = wet
  • 5/40 = Optimum application T

Denepox 40

  • EN 1505-5 principle F
  • Standard + Year of declaration
  • U (F1) W(3) (1/2) (10/40) (0)
  • (F1) = Adhesion > 2 N/mm²
  • W(3) = Crack width > 0.3 mm
  • (1/2) = Dry or moist substrates
  • (10/40) = Application temperatures
  • (0) = Static cracks

Primary criteria

Does your application require a CE-marking

  • Is the resin used inside reinforced concrete
  • CE-marking does not apply for curtain grouting
  • CE-marking does not apply for masonry
  • Is the application considered in the standard
  • For the rigid, high foaming resins, no CE-marking is required
  • They are considered as pre-injection materials and need to be used together with a Catergory D/S product

Is the product suitable for the repair method

  • Wateproofing or structural repair
  • Waterproofing products are not suitable for structural repairs
  • Mayor check points
  • Injectability / Minimal crack width W(X) where X = crack size in 1/10 mm.
  • Moisture condition 1-2-3-4 where 1 = dry / 2 = damp / 3 = wet / 4 = running water
  • Acrylic gels can only be used in moisture conditions 2-3-4
  • The waterproofing capacity = maximum declared water pressure resistance
  • In case of structural injection, the glass transition temperature

CE-Mark is no quality mark

  • The FPC only validates procedures, it does not impose rectification of quality issues

Injection resins for remedial waterproofing

De Neef®

Basic injection techniques

Waterproofing injections

Injection techniques

  • Primary technique
  • Drill and packer
  • Most common technique used for waterproofing crack and joint injections
  • Due to the pressures needed.
  • Pressure needs to be monitored carefully.
  • High injection pressures causes more damage than you are trying to fix
  • Maximum injection pressure is sometimes defined as
    (Concrete strength x 10)/3     ((B)35 x 10)/3 = 116 bars

Waterproofing injections

Confining large leaks

Large leaks with void

 

Packer installation

  • Use suitable packer related to the size of leak / waterflow
  • Thighten thoroughly to prevent packer from blowing out the wall
  • Flushing with water
  • Shows crack, also hidden cracks
  • Flushs out dirt and dust
  • Eliminates blind holes
  • Start at the bottom of vertical crack or at the smallest part of horizontal crack
  • Always flush with the highest possible flowrate
  • Use separate pump for flushing

Injection Equipment